Structural Gamification — application of game elements to propel a learner though content with no alteration or changes to the content
The content stays the same, but it’s inserted into a game framework
A training video does not change, but there are points or badges attached to viewing it.
The number of structural gamification tools has expanded and diversified, many measure behaviors and actions as well
You need to have lots of questions in order to have enough content to sustain any real duration
Game based gamification — learners engage in small games unrelated to the content, and which are intended to grab attention and clear the mind
Used to prep users for learning, put then in a “flow”
Flow — a mental state in which a person is fully immersed, only paying attention to the task at hand
The content that you are trying to teach appears after a few moments of playing, hoping to be easier to learn and retain after clearing their mind playing
It’s possible that playing the minigame enhances learning because it increases the learner’s vigilance and alertness (stress), which preps their mind to taking in new information.
When learners are given the choice to play a minigame with the questions or just answer a question, most learners will choose the game, those learners answer more questions correctly, and have longer correct answer streaks than those who did not play
These learners were also motivated to pursue extra learning opportunities, “so they could answer more questions correctly” (confidence = more open to opportunities = more chances of success?)
Competition based gamification – players are prevented from directly competing with opponents, and have to entirely focus on optimizing their own play
It helps to keep the number of competitors small in these setups. The fewer the competitors, the more likely someone sees their own chances of success, so they try harder. This phenomenon is known as the N-effect.
Consider breaking people out into teams to shrink groups of competitors
Competition is not appealing to everyone, and can become demotivating to players. Consider who your audience is, what you are hoping they will learn.
Progression based gamification — showing learners their progress based on their mastery of desired knowledge, skills, or behavior
Types of Progression Based Competition
Against the computer
Against other learners
Categories of Badges — time, accuracy, learning, competency
Performance based gamification — measures what a person does and rewards appropriately
- Self reporting — self measured
- Observation — supervisor measured
- Systematic — interface measured
Content gamification — application of game dynamics, mechanics, and elements to alter instructional content itself to the content more game-like
Views gamification as a design affordance — if a designer adds many game elements, content gamification can shift into a learning or serious game
Design affordance — properties of objects which show users the actions they can take
Requires more advanced design skills, does not have preexisting framework
Techniques — story/context, characters, challenge
Characters can spark better engagement than text only in content
Give learners options about who is their teacher, mentor, aide…
Think about diversity
Challenge should exist! Users are not engaged when things are too easy. Challenge has been correlated with both intrinsic motivation and motivation related to fostering competence and learner confidence
Adults learn best when they have a need to know
People have been shown to better retain facts from when they are included in a story than when they are presented on their own. So, set up the right content for your learners!
If you set up good contexts for presenting info, then the users know what kinds of situations that that info is useful
Key points for use
- Ensure characters and the situation are relevant and relatable to the learner
- Make the story interactive (have consequences for good and bad actions)
Provide juicy feedback — designing for visceral reactions in the learners so they experience emotions; it should be natural within the context of the world, consistently given, and coherent